When it comes to crafting a memorable or emotionally impactful moment in a song, many songwriters turn to modulation. Who can forget when Michael Jackson shouts “Change!” just as the key in his classic “Man in the Mirror” goes from an unassuming G Major to the unexpected A flat major? Modulation occurs when there is a change from one tonality to another, and is commonly accompanied by changing the key signature.
Modulation often occurs near the end of a song, and can add excitement or variety when crafting the bridge of the song as well. Typically, musicians tend to modulate the pitch higher in a song, but a modulation can be equally as interesting when the pitch is shifted down. Beyond raising or lowering the pitch, there are three simple ways to modulate your song.
The Direct Approach
Looking for a way to grab your listeners with a powerful and dramatic key change? A direct modulation may be exactly what you’re looking for. This kind of modulation can lend excitement and energy to a song, and can be particularly useful when scoring for tv or film.
When you get to the part of your song you want to modulate, take that final chord from your first key, and follow it with a chord in your next key. You aren’t looking to create a smooth transition here; the goal is to create dynamic direct movement from one key to the next. The lack of transition or build up is part of what gives this type of modulation an exciting quality. Typically you will want to modulate up one half step or one whole step, but the choice is yours.
This kind of modulation can represent all sorts of emotions or moods depending on what your song is being used for. Some examples include:
- Providing a dramatic flourish for the big finish of a song
- Signaling the passage of time when scoring for film or tv
- Cueing the listener in to a moment of transcendence in a story line
Though sometimes thought of as an overused device, there are always interesting ways to insert a direct modulation, such as using it for the bridge. When used sparingly, it can be a highly effective way to give your song an energetic push.
A Subtler Approach
If you aren’t looking to drop suddenly into a brand new key, you might want to employ a chromatic modulation. Rather than dropping unexpectedly into a brand new key, a chromatic modulation only moves up one semitone, or one half step, into the new key.
You won’t use a pivot chord (more on that in a minute!) in this type of modulation. This change of key occurs because of an alteration of a note between the two chords where the modulation takes place.
Smoothly Transition to the Next Key with a Pivot Chord
A Smooth Transition
To make the transition into your new key, you may want to employ a pivot chord. This is a chord that both your previous key and your new key share in common. This is the most common type of modulation, as the modulation won’t be noticed immediately, providing a smooth transition from one key to the next.
You can also use a “pivot note” instead of a whole chord if that makes more sense for your song. In this instance, rather than using a chord that is used in both keys, emphasize a note that is common between the two chords you are modulating between.
There are many other ways to modulate your song, but hopefully this article will give you a good idea of where to start. And if you’re wondering how many times you can employ a modulation in a single song, look no further than Beyonce’s iconic “Love On Top” in which the singer moves through five different keys throughout the course of her chart topping hit!
We hope to continue to expand the resources we can provide songwriters, and while modulating can be a fun tool to utilize, there are plenty of other ways to take your songwriting to the next level! When your songs are finished Planetary Group is available to help musicians share their work with the rest of the world. To hear more about the full array of radio promotions services Planetary Group can offer to musicians, call (323) 952-5050 today.